Steno-K+ Notation

English: A FORCEFUL Language

The French from Belgium and Brazilian Portuguese can be
quite soft, but NOT English: it's a FORCEFUL-sounding
LANGUAGE unlike the romance languages like French,
Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian, and Romansh:
an English sentence is NOT to be pronounced "softly".

It's important to note that The QUESTION WORDS +
EXCLAMATIONS are "supposed" to be pronouced

is "controlled" by its PROSODIC STRESS which is
determined in good part by which word or words of
the sentence that speaker wishes to emphasize.

Example: I want y-o-u (drawn out + louder than the
other words) to do it: NOT (said loudly) him.
Prosodic stress regulates the overall forcefulness
of an English sentence.

along with 2 prominent consonants, the "l" and
the "r", which need to be FULLY ARTICULATED;
the ASPIRATED Enlgish CONSONANTS (force-
ful expulsion of air) at the beginning of a word
are "naturally pronounced clearly".

It's helps to note - as a guide - when it comes to
correct pronunciation, the longer the word, the
less + less long vowels there are.

For example:
"reside" has 2 long vowels: a long-e + a long-i.
"residence" + "residential" have all short vowels.


This Web page demonstrates "clearly"
the deceptiveness of English spelling
due to its misrepresentation in
of its sounds (phonetics).

Here's an important tip: when faced with a phonetic
turn it into a question.

For example, why is the "e" in "the", a 3-letter word,

The answer: it's one of the many idiocyncracies
of the English
that makes English spelling very

What about this 2-letter word: "of "?
The "o" is in fact a short-a + the "f", a "v".

The answer is the same as the one above. :D

Non-native English language learners become aware
quickly that the "phonology" (the sound system
of the English language) is
NOT correctly represented
by its printed form.

English language that makes it such A CHALLENGE.

One of the negative consequences for native speakers
of having a weak command of English (This is especially
true among immigrant + working-class children.) is that
will NOT go into a liberal arts university program prefer-
ring to get a university degree in the sciences or business.

Rather than breaking through the phonetic barrier of the
printed word
, they choose to give up choosing to have as
little as possible to do with the language preferring to be
"semiliterates". This is true of doctors, nurses, business
men/women, engineers + ... .

NO OTHER LANGUAGE in the world is faced with such

THIS WEB PAGE is designed to give you A GOOD
FEEL for how English phonetics works when deciding
how to say a printed English word.

It will INCREASE YOUR CHANCES of recognizing
the correct pronunciation of a word just by looking
at it knowing what to look out for.

You'll feel you're A PRO!

Trying to figure out how to pronounce a word in print
will no longer be a guessing crapshoot thanks to the
material here you'll be able to
overcome "inherent"
phonetic obstacles of the English language allowing
you to ENJOY THE "VERBAL" FLOW of the language

I enjoy saying this
"with bonhomie" (GOOD-NATUREDLY)
as a Frenchman,
I take pride in the fact that French, when
compared to English phonetically is HEAVENLY! (Ha! Ha!)

Talking about English phonetics

in terms of English spelling

silent letters - almost everwhere!

2. sounds NOT spellt

        - "sure", an unspelt "h" after "s"
        - "expect", an unspelt "s" after "ex"
        - "pure", an unspelt long-e after "p"
        - followed by an unspelt y-glide
3. arbitrary vowel change
    with the addition of a letter
         - in "he": long-e
         - in "her": short-e
         - in "the": "e" is a short-a

4. in majority of vowel pairs only 1 of 2
    is pronounced, but
which one?
        - pie (long i)
        - field (long e)

5. double consonants: only 1 pronounced
        - annual
        - command
        Note: the double "cc" is the
        Note: exception. Example
        Note: "accept", 1st "c" pro-
        Note: nounced as an "k"; 2nd
        Note: pronounced as a "s".

6. double "c": ks-sound-combo
        - "accept" is pronounced "ak'-sept"
        - "success" is pronounced "suk'sess"
        - "eccentric" is pronouced "ek'-sen-tric"
        Note: when "cc" comes before
        Note: a consonant other than
        Note: an "e" the 1st "c" is still
        Note: pronouced as a "k",
        Note: accumulate, occupy,
        Note: accomplish, occasional,
        Note: ecclesiastical, accommo-
        Note: date, account.

7. false vowels
        - the "o" in "dot" is pronounced as a long-a
        - the "u" in "but" is pronounced as a short-a

8. "t" as "sh"
        - in "action" the "t" is pronouched "sh"
        - in "potential" the "t" is pronouched "sh"
        - in "essential" the "t" is pronouched "sh"
        "t" as "ch"
        - in "future" the "t" is pronouched "ch"
        - in "fortune" the "t" is pronouched "ch"
        - in "fracture" the "t" is pronouched "ch"
        - in "agriculture" the "t" is pronouched "ch"

9. "c" as "sh"
        - in "facial" the "c" is pronouched "sh"
        - in "racial" the "c" is pronouched "sh"
        - in "gracious" the "c" is pronouched "sh"
10. "gh" as "f"
             cough, rough, tough

             Be careful! In these words, they're silent: though, through

11. "gh" silent consonantal combo
             bright, light, eight, bought, ought, brought, though, through

             Comment: when it comes to silent letters,
             Comment: English takes the cake. :D

12. "ph" as "f"
             - in the beginning of a word, "photo"
             - in the end of a syllable, "triumph", "diph-tong"

13. "ps": silent "p"
             psyche, psychedelic, psychosis, psychotic,
             psychology, psychiatrist, pseudony, psoriasis           

14. "f" as "v"
             - in "of" the "f" is pronouched "v"

15. combined words, different sound
             - in "theme" (the+me), only one syllabe with a long-e
             - in "earnest" (ear: long-e; ear+nest: both "e"s, short)

16. "g" as "j": NO rule
             - in "gorgeous", the 2nd "g" is pronounced as a "j"

17. "i" as long-e
             - in machine, obvious

18. "s" as "j"
             - in "usual" the "s" is pronouched "j"

19. "s" as "z"
             - in "has" and "is", the "s" at the end is pronouced "z"
             - in "reason", the "s" between 2 vowels is pronouced "z"

20. "c" as "s"
             - in "cancer" + "cancel", the 2nd "c" is pronouced "s"
             - in "calcium", the 2nd "c" is pronouced "s", ("i" as long-e)
             centre, century, cent, central, centimentre, celebrate, certain,

21. "c" as "q" before "le" with slient "e"
             oracle, miracle, bycicle + circle: the 1st "c" is an s-sound,
             article, cubicle, uncle, popsicle, recycle (the 1st "c" is an
             s-sound), vehicle, testicle, obstacle, icicle (the 1st "c" is
             an s-sound), clavicle, tabernacle, receptacle
22. the oe-combo with silent "e"
             - in the vowel oe-combo in "toe", the "o" is a long-o
             - in the vowel oe-combo in "shoe", the "e" is a long-u

23. the ei-combo: 3 (NOT 2) possibilities
             - in the vowel ei-combo in "either", the "i" is a long-i
             - in the vowel ei-combo in "cafeine", the "e" is a long-e
             - in the vowel ei-combo in "eight", the "ei" is a long-a

24. the ea-combo: 4 (NOT 2) possibilities
             - in the vowel ea-combo in "idea": the "ea"
             Example: the vowel ea-combo in is a combo of long-e +
             Example: the vowel ea-combo in short-a
             - in the vowel ea-combo in "earth", the "ea" is a short-e
             - in the vowel ea-combo in "ear", the "ea" is a long-e
             - in the vowel ea-combo in "bread", the "ea" is the
            Exa mple: French sound "ait" (NOT an "offically"
            Exam ple: recognized sound of the English language)

25. the eu-combo: a lot of variations
25. long-e; long-u
             feud, feudal, therapeutic, feudal, petroleum,
             queue (the 1st u" is silent along with the final "e)

25. silent "e"; y-glide; long-u
              euphony, eugenic, euchre, eureka, eunuch

25. silent "e"; long-u
             euphemism, eulogy, euphoria, eucalyptus, Eucharist,
             rheumatism (silent "h"), Zeus, pharmaceutical, neuter,
             neutral, pneumonia, maneuver, pseudo, Teutonic,
             pneumatic (silent "p"), deuce, leukemia, milieu, adieu,
             Deuteronomy, neutralize, neutron, lieutenant, sleuth

25. long-e; short-e

25. short-e; short-i

25. short-e (the schwa)

             voyeur: the "o" is a short-a

             liqueur: the 1st "u" is silent

             masseur: a short-a

             amateur: 2 short-a's; the "t" is pronounced as a "ch"

             grandeur: the "d" is pronounced as a "j"

             chauffeur: the "ch" is pronounced "sh"; the "au" is
             chauffeur: pronounced as a long-o

             aneurism: short-a; short-i

             grandeur: short-a; (the "d" is pronounced as a "j")

             voyageur: "oy" is a diphtong; short-a
                                                Note: diphthong
             provocateur: the 1st "o" is a short-e; long-o; a glottal-a
             Note: glottal means at the back of the mouth

             entrepreneur: the 1st 3 "e"s are a short-e

             connoisseur: the "o" is a short-a; the 2nd "o" is a long-a;
             connoisseur: the "i" is silent

             restauranteur: the 1st "e" is the French "ais"; the "au"
             restauranteur: is a short-e; the final "a" is a short-a

25. short-e (the schwa)
25. followed by an unspelt "r"
25. before the "r" to end the syllable
             euro: (unspelt y-glide in front); short-e; unspelt "r" at the
                            end of the 1st syllable before the following "r"; long-o

             Europe: (unspelt y-glide in front); short-e; the "o" is a short-i;
                                   a silent e

             fleury: there's an unspelt "r" before the "r" starting the 2nd
             fleury: syllable

             neurologist: the 2 "o"s are a short-a; the "g" is pro-
             neurologist: nounced as a "j"; short-i

             neuron: the "o" is a glottal-a
             Note: glottal means at the back of the mouth


             pasteurize: silent "e" at the end

26. the ui-combo: a lot of variations
25. long-u; glottal-stop; short-i
             altruism, fluid, tuition, intuition, truism, druid
             annuity, ruin, bruise: silent "e", juice: silent "e"
             Jesuit: "s" is pronounced as "z"            
             cruise: "s" is pronounced as "z"; silent "e"
             congruity: "o" is a short-a; "y" is a long-e
             suicide: "c" is pronounced as "s"; silent "e"
             intuitive: all the "i"s are short-i's; silent "e"
             perspicuity: short-e; short-i; "y" is a long-e
             continuity: "o" is a short-a; short-e; "y" is a long-e
             genuine: "g" is pronounced as "j"; final "e" is silent
             ingenuity: "g" is pronounced "j"; short-e; "y" is a long-e
             promiscuity: "o" is a short-a; short-i;
             promiscuity: "c" pronounced as "q";  "y" is a long-e

25. long-u; silent "i"
             fruit, recruit: long-e
             suitable: short-a; silent "e"

25. silent "u"; long-i
             guide: silent "e"
             disguise: short-i; silent "e"
             guileless: silent "e"; "e" is a short-e
             mosquito: "o" pronounced as short-a;
             mosquito: "o" pronounced as long-u
25. silent "u"; short-i
             guild, build, cliquish, guilty: "y" is a long-e,
             circuit:  "c" is pronounced as "s"; "i" is a short-e;
             circuit:  2nd "c" is pronounced as "k"
             guillotine: "o" is a short-a; "i" is a long-e; silent "e"

25. silent "u";"i" pronounced as long-e
             guitar, quiche: "ch" is pronounced "sh; silent "e"
             tequila, guinea: silent "a", marquis,
             quixotic: "x" is pronounced as an aspirated "h";
             quixotic: "o" is a short-a; "c" pronounced "k"
             conquistador: "o" is a short-a; short-a; short-o

25. "u" pronounced as "w"; short-i
             liquid, relinquish, quilt, squid, quirk, quip, aquifer
             squint, squirt, quintet, penguin, equip: long-e
             quill, quizz, quick, quit, liquid, equity: short-e
             tranquil: short-a
             equivalent: 2 short-e's, equitable: a short-e; silent "e"
             inquisitive: all "i"s are short-i's
             linguistics: all "i"s are short-i's
             unequivocal: short-u; short-e; long-o; short-a
             quintuplate: "u" is a short-a; long-a; silent "e"
             ventriloquist: short-e; short-i; "o" is a short-e
             distinguish: an unspelt "g" ends the 2nd syllable
             extinguish: an unspelt "g" ends the 2nd syllable
             ubiquitous: y-glide; long-u; short-i; "ou" is a short-i
             quintessential: 2 short-e's; 2nd "t" pronounced as
             quintessential: "sh"; "i" is a short-e; silent "a"

25. "u" pronounced as "w"; long-i
             quite: silent "e", quiet: "e" is a short-i
             inquiry: "y" is pronounced as a long-e

25. "u" pronounced as "w"; "i" pronounced as long-e
             equilibrium: all "i"s are long-e's; silent "u"
             cuisine: "s" is pronounced as "z"; silent "e"
             colloquial: "o" is a short-e; long-o; short-a
             acquiesce: "c" is pronounced "k"; short-e; silent "ce"
             acquisition: "c" is pronounced "k"; "s" is pronounced "z";
             acquisition: "t" is pronounced "sh"; "io" is pronounced as a short-u
25. "u" pronounced as "w"; "i" as a short-e (the schwa)
             squirrel: short-e
             requisite: short-e; short-i, silent "e"
             Equinox: short-e (schwa); "o" is a short-a

27. the 4-y possibilites            
             1. in "my", the "y" is a long-i
             2. in "mystery", the "y" is a short-i
             3. in "baby", the "y" is a long-e
             4. in "myhrr", the "y" is a short-e

             Knowing that the "y" in "by" is a long-i,
             does that help to pronounce "ruby"?


             The "y" in the 2nd by-syllable of "ru-by"
             is a long-e.

28. "wh" trouble
             The "wh" consonantal combo is associated
             with all wh-question words, but in only two,
             "who" + "whose", the "w" is silent. (To add
             to the confusion, the "o" is a long-u.)

             Interestingly, "(wh)one" begins with an un-
             spelt "wh": one of the many mysteries of
             the English language. (Ha! Ha!)

29. the silent "w"
             wrong, write, written, wreck, wrench, wrestle, wren,

30. the silent "k"
              knee, knife, know, knead, knot, knock, knick, knight

31. the silent "g"
              gnaw, gnat, gnome, gnocchi, gnosticism
32. "gh" initial consonantal combo
              The silent "h" indicates that the "g" preceding it is
              aspirated with a forceful, short uh-sound to create
              the "guh"ost with a long-o; a"guh"ast with 2 'short-a's.

33. "c" pronouced "k" before silent "t"
              correct, expect, extinct, distinct, instinct

34. the "u": NOT a u-sound
             - "u" in "but" is a short-a
             - the "u" in "murder" is a short-e
             Exception: vacuum

35. 3 "a" sounds
              1. short-a in "cat"
              2. long-a in "cake"
              3. very long-a (a glottal-a: back-of-the-mouth) in
              3. "talk", "walk", "law", "saw", "paw",
              3. "Paul", "Saul", "wall", "doll"
              In short, the English "a" has 3 different sound lengths
              that directly impacts the length of the syllable they're

              Here are 3 1-syllabe words to prove this:
              - bad, short;
              - bake, long;
              - raw, extra long.
             Note: a written "a" can mask
             Note: the actual vowel which
             Note: is NOT an "a". For ex-
             Note: ample, the "a" in "glo-
             Note: bal" is, in fact, a short-i.
             Note: In "of", the "o" is a short-a.
             Note: In "the", the "e" is a short-a.
             Note: In "but", the "u" is a short-a.
             Note: NONE OF THAT is obvious.

36. the double "e": a long-e
              In "speed", the double-e is a long-e.

              The only other "real" double vowel is "u":
              it occurs only in "vaccuum".
37. -ion ending: a short-u + the "t" in
                               front of it pronounced as "sh"
                               mention, attention, repetition, rendition, edition,
                               petition, correction, participation, receptition,
                               direction, perception, distinction, extinction,
                               exception, pronunciation, sensation, caution,
                               lotion, duration, eruption, notion, motion, option,
                               diction, education, fusion, defusion, edition,
                               addition, addiction, section, position, compilation
                               Exception: "question"(The "t" is pro-
                               Exception: nounced as a "t" - NOT as
                               Exception: an "sh".)
                               Note: the vast majority of the words
                               Note: ending in "ion" have a "t" in
                               Note: front instead of an "s".

                               as a short-u + the "s" in front of it
                               pronounced as "sh" with an un-
                               spelt "h" after the "s"
                               extension, tension, television, vision, lesion,
                               session, recession, decision, collision, mission,
                               precision, incession, derision, prison, mansion,
                              evasion, accension, admission, commission,
                              confession, aggression, conversion, depression,
                              circumcision, oppression

38. - ance
              It has a short-a; "c" is pronounced "s".
              dance, romance, circumstance,
              freelance, finance, lance, chance,
             advance, enhance, glance

              Note: in most cases, the ance-ending
              Note: takes a short-i.

              substance, hindrance, resistance,
              abundance, acceptance, appearance,
              performance, arrogance, assurance,
              admittance, allegiance, observance,
              allowance, annoyance, ambulance,
              alliance, assistance, assurance,
              attendance, balance, brillance,
              buoyance, clearance, compliance,
              surveillance, distance, discordance,
              durance, ellegance, distrubance,
              entrance, extravagance, nuisance,
              grievance, ignorance, penance,
             - ence
             The 1st "e" is a short-i.
             fence, defence, licence, dependence,
             reference, interference, conference,
             coincidence, equivalence, influence,
             occurence, confidence, eloquence,
             experience, magnificence, residence,
             obsolescence, incongruence, adole-
             scence, convenience, affluence,
             essence, influence, insurgence,
             competence, intelligence, existence
             Comment: the prevalence of the e short-i
              Examples in ance-ending + ence-ending
              Examples words speaks to the strength
              Examples of the short-i on the English
              Examples language along side the short-e
              Examples (schwa: the most common
              Examples sound in English).
              Examples schwa-vowel-sound

             - ense
             The 1st "e" is has the French "ais" sound.
              dense,  sense, nonsense, incense, tense,
              pretense, defense, license, suspense,
              condense, expense, immense, dispense

             - inse

39. Dis- initial consonant-vowel syllable
              There is NO CONFUSION when it's the initial syllable.
              dis-continue, dis-incentive, dis-tinct,
              dis-cretion, dis-proportionate, dis-tance,
              dis-interest, dis-agree, dis-able, dis-joint

              However, there is CONFUSION when the "s" starts the
              2nd syllable.
              "di'spictable", "di'spell", "di'scretion",
              "di'sease", "di'sciple","di'spence",
              "di'saster", "di'spute", "di'screte",

             Des- initial consonant-vowel syllable
             There is NO CONFUSION when it's the initial syllable.
             Des-parate, des-sert, des-tiny,
             des-pot, des-tined, des-pondent

              However, there is CONFUSION when the "s" starts the
              2nd syllable.
              "de'scribe", "de'stroy", "de'struction", "de'secrate"
              "de'spite", "de'spair", "de'spise", "de'serve",
             "de'scend", "de'sign", "de'sire", "de'serter",
40. Re- initial syllable with a long-e
             re-spect, re-gard, re-late, re-main, re-mark,
             re-ality, re-fer, re-porter, re-act, re-spond,
             re-cur, re-lationship, re-member, re-ly,
             re-port, re-quire, re-appoint, re-strict,
             re-sponsible. re-linquish, re-ligious,
             re-peat, re-ception, re-sent, re-capitulate,
             re-organize, re-strict, re-duce, re-integrate,
             re-distribute, re-activate, re-furbish, re-flect,
             re-flex, re-gress, re-affirm, re-ciprocate,
             re-public, re-press, re-calibrate, re-equip,
             re-emphasize, re-store, re-liance, re-medial
              Note: this "re" with the long-e
             Note: occurs at least twice as
             Note: much as the "re" with
             Note: the short-e.

             Re- initial syllable with a short-e
             re-lative, re-medy, re-monstrate, re-sidential,
             re-membrance, re-frigerator, re-tro, re-surrect,
             re-cipe, re-troactive, re-volution, re-petition,
             re-dicule, re-present, re-plicate, re-servation,
             re-petition, re-gular, re-prehensible, re-gister,
             re-minisce, re-percussion, re-cognition,
             re-naissance, re-storation,re-configure,
             re-structure, re-tribution, re-ciprocity, re-feree
             re-gimental, re-solute, re-ferendum, relative,
             re-collect, re-sidue, re-novate

41. X, a "multifaceted" consonant
             "ks" at an end of a syllable or word
             "z" at the beginning of a syllable or word
             less common:
             "k" glottal stop "sh"
             "g" glottal stop "z"
             Note: glottal means at the back of the mouth

             ox: the "o" is a glottal-a; "x" pronounced as "ks"
             exit: short-e; "x" pronounced as "gz" (the "g" +
             exit: the "z" are separated by a glottal stop
             exit: which is highly unusally for a pair of
             exit: consonants in English); short-i
             extra: short-e; "x" pronounced as "ks"; a glottal-a
             xerox: "x" pronounced as "z"; "e" is a short-i; "o"
             xerox: is a short-a; "x" pronounced as "ks"
             larynx: a short-e; an "extra" unspelt "r" before the
             larynx: "y" to start the 2nd syllable; the "yn" pro-
             larynx: nounced as a glottal-ng; the "y" is a short-i;
             larynx: "x" pronounced as "ks"
             anxious: glottal-ng; "x" pronounced as "ksh"  (the
             anxious: "k" + the "sh" are separated by a glottal
             anxious: stop); a short-i; the "u" is also a short-i
             anxiety:  glottal-ng; "x" pronounced as "z"; long-i;
             anxiety:  "e" is a short-i; "y" is a long-e
             xylophone: "x" pronounced as "z"; "y" is a long-i;
             xylophone: "o" is a short-e; long-o; silent "e"
             xenophobia: "x" pronounced as "z"; short-e; the
             xenophobia: "o" is also a short-e; "ph" pronounced
             xenophobia: as "f"; long-o; "i" is a long-e; "a" is a
             xenophobia: glottal-a

All these "unpredicable" features makes
English THE MOST DIFFICULT language
to learn.

The funny thing about English, you can-
make it more difficult than it actual-
ly is. :D

The closer the correspondence of the sounds
and their representation in the words of the
language in the spelling of those words, the
easier it is to learn language:
good examples
of this is
French, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish,
and German.

HOWEVER, this is NOT the case of English
making it SUCH AN ODD LANGUAGE when
you have to spell, write, and read.

The upcoming K+ book, "English
" will illustrate this.

Talking about English phonetics
in terms of English spelling

the "ew" pronunciation dilemma
A person could possibly correctly guess
that the "w" is silent.

But what to do with the "e"?

Short, long, or something else?

"Few" + "pew" have a long-e fol-
lowed by an unspelt long-u pre-
ceded by an unspelt y-glide to
be pronounced "fee'you" +

The "i" in "view" is a long-e (The "e"
+ "w" are silent.)
followed by an un-
long-u preceded by an unspelt 
y-glide to be pronounced "vee'you".

But in "new", "brew", "crew", "flew",
"drew" "Jew", "blew", "due", "threw",
"slew", "grew" and "yew"  where
the "e" + "w" are silent: the vowel
that is pronounced is the unspelt
Exception: "sew" is pronounced
Exception: with an unspelt long-o
Exception: with the "e"+ "w"
Exception: being silent.

In this word pair, "rate" has a long-a,
in "separate", "rat" is pronounced
as a short-e. In fact, each of the three
vowels in "separate" is
a short-e.
It's important to note the short-e is the
most common
sound of the English

It's referred to as "the schwa" in linguistics.

The "a" in "late" is a long-a, but in "chocolate",
a short-i.

What, again, is evident is the variability in the
of a written vowel.

The "o" in "come" is a short-o, but the "o" in
"home" is
a long-o due to the aspirated "h" (huh).

Visually, you would expect the "o" to be pro-
nouced the same, but they're NOT.

How to know?

This is "another" abitrary sound change that
adds to the difficulty of English pronunciation.

The "a" in "gave" is a short-a, but the "a" in
"have" is
a long-a due to the aspirated "h" (huh).

The "o" in "work" is a short-e (the schwa).

The "o" in "cork" is a short-o (an "infrequent"
sound found in "or").

The "w" forces the o-vowel to become a short-e
because it's easier to pronounce that way.

In "are", there's a short-a;
"care", there's a long-a; +
the "r" + "e" are silent.
In these 3 word,
- the "o" in the 1st is pronounced as short-a;
- in the 2nd, as a long-o (as expected);
- in the 3rd, as a short-u.

Visually, the "o"s are the same.
HOWEVER, they're pronounced differently.

NO RULES exist to explain the differences.

English treats it as one syllable when it's really
two: ou-(e)r

By itself, the "ou" in "our" is a diphtong where-
by the "a" glides into the "o" creating the "ow"
sound: that is followed by an unwritten short-e
(aka the schwa):

When "s" is added to the front for "sour", the
diphtong "ow" sound remains. BUT, when "t"
is added for "tour", the "ou" is pronounced
as a long-u.

the "i" in the -ine
- in mine, it's a long-i
- in deter
mine, it's a short-i
- in machine, it's a long-e like in French
- (It's NOT an "i".)

In "wild" there is a long-i, but in "wilderness",
it's a short-i.
In fact, the other 2 "e" vowels in "wil'-der-ness"
are short as well.

The short vowels in multisyllabic English words
can be attributed to the strong influence of the
schwa upon the English language.
schwa-vowel sound

The first syllable is the dominant syllable be-
cause it has the tonic stress shown by an
apostrphe (') at the end of the syllable as
shown above.
A consequence of this is a slight prolongation
of this syllable that makes it stand out more
than the other two (2) syllables.

In short, both long vowels + tonic stress con-
tibute to the elongation of syllables.
tonic stress

Syllabic Parsing
Problem: syllabic boundary confusion
             In "notice", it's easy to see it as two different
             words coming together: "not" with a short-a
             + "ice" with a long-i: in reality, the word has
             nothing to do either.

             In this 2-syllable word, "no'-tice", there is a
             long-o in the 1st syllabel (NOT the short-a
             in "not"); the short-i (NOT the long-i in "ice")
             in the 2nd syllable.

             The confusion arises from the syllabic parsing
             of the word that devides a word into syllables.

             "Notice" could have very easily been incorrectly
             parsed as "not" + "ice" instead of "no'-tice":
             spelt the same, but pronouned differently.

Syllabic Length Counts
              Short syllables make for a quick paced, punchy
              short sentence.

              To show this, here is a 6-word sentence with 6
              short syllable words: He stopped to let him pass.

              However, with long syllables, the sentence is
              longer, languid, slower.

             Consider this 6-word sentence with 6 long syllable
              words: I saw her boy walk there.

The Glottal Stop (?)
the vowel combos
             i?o example: li?on
             i?a example: reli?able
             i?e example: qu?it
             u?a example: evalu?ate
             Note: there's an unspelt
             Note: y-glide in front of
             Note: the "u" in "eval(y-glide)u?ate".
             Note: the "a" in the ate-final-
             Note: syllable of accu?ate is
             Note: pronounced as a short-i.
             Note: the glottal stop allows
             Note: for each vowel to be
             Note: fully pronounced. It
             Note: acts as a syllabic
             Note: boundary that sepa-
             Note: rating two (2) syllables.
             Note: the Cockney working-
             Note: class dialect, a remnant
             Note: of medieval English,
             Note: spoken on the bank of
             Note: the River Thames in
             Note: East London empha-
             Note: sizes the glottal stops.

Glottal: back-of-the-mouth
the very long-a (a glottal-a)
             "talk", "walk", "law", "saw", "paw",
             "Paul", "Saul", "wall", "doll"
the ng-consonantal combo: 1 sound
             It has a glottal-ng (back of the mouth) nasal sound
             very common in Vietnamese produced by pulling
             the tongue all the way back combined with the
             constriction of the the vocal cords.
             sing, sang, sung, ding-dong, bang,
             tongue, thing, cling, among

Two (2) Diphtongs
1. oi, oy
2. ow, ou
the ou-vowel-combo: 5 (NOT 2) possibilities
- in the vowel ou-combo in "mould", the "ou" is a long-o
- in the vowel ou-combo in "could", the "ou" is a short-u
             Note: there seems to be no explanation
             Note: for the vowel difference between
             Note: "mould" + "could".
- in the vowel ou-combo in "nougat", the "ou" is a long-u
- in the vowel ou-combo in "throuble", the "ou" is a short-a
- in the vowel ou-combo in "loud" is diphtong
             Note: (with the "a" vowel gliding into the
             Note: "o" vowel to create the "ow" sound)
             Note: the "other" diphtong sound in
             Note: English is "oy" as in "boy",
             Note: "oi" as in "coin" whereby
             Note: the "o" vowel glides into
             Note: the "a" vowel to create
             Note: the "oy" sound. (It the re-
             Note: verse of the ou/ow-diphtong.)
             Note: diphthong

the -ow ending with a silent "w"
pronounced as ...
             - a long-o
             flow, flown, bowl, own, shown

             - a diphtong (the "a" slides into the "o")
             flower, clown, owl, town

The Schwa Er-sound
The most common sound in the English language
- her
- sure
- sugar
- factor
- voyeur
- circuit
- martyr
- theatre
- irksome

BIGGEST Vowel Imposture: "O"
1. the double "o": a long or short u-sound
         The double "o" can be one of two (2) sounds:
         1. a long-u in "too";
         2. a short-u in "book".
         Exceptions: the o-vowels in "door"
         Exceptions: + "floor" form a short-o.

2. 3 "o"s, each a different vowel
         The word "tomorrow" illustrates the treacherousness
         of the letter "o":
         the 1st "o" is a long-u;
         the 2nd "o" is a short-a;
         the 3rd "o" is a long-o.

3. 3 "o"s, 3 different vowels: NO o-sound
         1. In "on", the "o" is a short-a;
         2. In "cotton", the 1st "o" is a short-a;
              2. In "cott     the 2nd "o", short-i;short-e
         3. In "ton", the "o" is a short-u.
4. the long-o
        The "long-o" like "short-o" is NOT common
        Though there are 3,000 words just starting
        with "o", only 131 words with a long-o.

        Here are a few:
        - "no"  with a long-o
        - "co-ed" with a long-o
        - "ocean" (o-cean) with a long-o,
        - the "c" (pronounced as "s")
        - followed by an unspelt "h"
        - with a short-e, a silent "a".
        - "toe" with a long-o + a silent "e"
        - "hoe" with a long-o + a silent "e"
         - "coat" with a long-o + a silent "a"
        - "row" with a long-o + a silent "w"
        - "bow" with a long-o + a silent "w"
        - "coke" with a long-o + a silent "e"
        - "rose"  with a long-o + a silent "e"
        - "nose"  with a long-o + a silent "e"
        - "hose"  with a long-o + a silent "e"
        - "pose"  with a long-o + a silent "e"
        - "lone" with a long-o + a silent "e"
        - "flow" with a long-o + a silent "w"
        - "close" with a long-o + a silent "e"
        - "bone" with a long-o + a silent "e"
        - "choke" with a long-o + a silent "e"
        - "comb" with a long-o + a silent "b"
        - "home" with a long-o + a silent "e"
        - "dome" with a long-o + a silent "e"
        - "show" with a long-o + a silent "w"
        - "moan" with a long-o + a silent "a"
        - "groan" with a long-o + a silent "a"
        - "roam" with a long-o + a silent "a"
        - "loam" with a long-o + a silent "a"
        - "know" with a long-o + a silent "k" + "w"
        - "oboe" (o-boe) with a 2 "long-o"s + a silent "e"
        - "co-operate" with a long-o, 2nd "o", a short-a,
        - short-e, long-a, silent "e"
        - "clothes" with a long-o + a de-emphasized "th",
        - a silent "e", "s" pronounced as "z"

5. the short-o
        There are very few words in English with a short-o:
         they're all followed by an "r".
         or, ore, core, chore bore, door, floor, more, shore, snore
         oar (The "a" is silent.)
         pour (The "u" is silent.)
         court (The "u" is silent)
         forward (The "a" is a short-e)
         chord (The "ch" pronouced as "k")
         chorus (The "ch" pronouced as "k" + the "u" is a short-i.)
              - "form" has a long-o
              - "horse" has a long-o
              - "course" has a long-o
              - "remorse" has a long-o
              - "orchestra" has a long-o
              Note: in "word" the "o"
              Note: is has a short-e
              Note: though it's fol-
              Note: lowed by an "r".

6. Pro- initial syllable with a long-o
         prophetic, produce (verb), profess, profound,

        Pro- initial syllable with a short-a
        product, produce (noun), professor,
7. -on endings have a short-e
         bacon, beacon, reckon, mason, plankton,
         sturgeon, imprison, jettison, million,
         horizon, crimson, treason, venison,
         ribbon, patron, poison, matron, wanton,
         deacon, carton, summon, tendon, falcon,
         unison, pardon, sermon, siphon, cotton,
         canon, lemon, onion, baron, arson, demon,
         son, canyon, salmon, gallon, "pigeon,
         jargon, cordon, dungeon, saffron, idiom,
        1. the "o" is a short-a
              1. "silicon", "telethon", "liason",
              1. "lexicon", "paragon", "neutron",
              1. "epsilon", "polygon", "echelon",
              1. "omicron", "coupon", "crayon",
              1. "micron", "tampon", "axion"
         2. the "o" is a long-a
              1. "on", "futon", "upon", "salon",
              1. "nylon", "pylon", "moron",
              1. "pantheon"
         3. the "o" is a short-u        
              1. "ton"

8. -om endings have a short-e
         freedom, accustom, blossom, bosom,
         officialdom, kingdom, martyrdom,
         boredom, wisdom, random, bottom,

        - "intercom" + "mom" + "prom"
            have a long-a
        - "whom" has a long-u

9. -ond where the "o" is a short-e
         second, diamond, Redmond, Raymond, Drummond, Raymond

9. -ond where the "o" is a short-a
         respond, beyond, blond, pond, bond, abscond, fond, almond

Long vs. Short Vowels
Vowels are produced in the larynx
also known as the voice box
and the glottis.

It contains the vocal cords that vibrate
to produce sounds.

The long vowels are produced with an
open larynx.

The short vowels are produced with an
constricted larynx.

A time factor is involved: the long vowels
require more time to produce; the short
vowels less time.

For that reason, long words have short vowels.

"Line" has a long-i.
"Masculine" has a short-i.

The 1st vowel of a one syllable words ending
in an "e" is long.
- rat, rate
- pet, Pete
- kit, kite
hop (The "o" is a short-a: for a short-o, a22f7fda676b
- hop  the "o" has to followed by an "r".), hope
cut, cute
False Exceptions
- sure: though treated as 1 syllable, it's, in
- fact, 2 syllabes.
- The "s" is followed by an unspelt "h" fol-
- lowed by an unspelt short-e for "she' "
- (1st syllable).

- The "u" is in fact, a short-e as well; the
- final "e" is silent for "er" (2nd syllable).

- Together, they're pronounced she'-er.

- pure: though, also, treated as 1 syllable,
- it's, in fact, 2 syllabes.

- The "p" is followed by an unspelt long-e
- for "pee" (1st syllable).

- The "u" is a short-e preceded by a y-glide
- with the final "e" being silent for "yer"
- (2nd syllable).

- Together, they're pronounced pee'-yer.

- one: it, also, has 2 syllabes (NOT one
- as is commonly believed).

- There is an unspelt aspirated "wh" in
- front of the "o" which is a short-a.
- This creates the 1st syllable: wha'.

- The 2nd syllable begins with an unspelt
- short-u ending with a silent "e". This
- creates the 2nd syllable: un.

- Together, they're pronounced wha'un.

Vowel Reduction
              Vowel-reduction is an important feature of "the vocal
linguistic law
" of the economy of speech that allows long
words to be said - more readily - (quicker) with one (1) long
syllable containing the long vowels while the other syllables
are shortened" containing short vowels.

- definition, vowel-reduction
- article, economy of speech
Here's an example vowel-reduction:
- ox - a short word with a glottal-a
    Note: glottal means at the back of the mouth

- obnoxious - a long word the "o" before
- obnoxious - the "x" is "reduced" to a
- obnoxious - short-a
    Note: all the vowels are short.

also "distinguishes"
between parts of speech.

Here are some examples.

The verb, "advertise", has a long-i;
however, its noun equivalent, "advertisement", has a short-i.

The verb, "bite", has a long-i
however, its noun equivalent, "bitten", has a short-i.

The verb, "collide", has a long-i
however, its noun equivalent, "collison", has a short-i.

The verb, "produce", has a long-u
however, its noun equivalent, "product", has a short-u.

The verb, "operate", has a long-a;
however, its noun equivalent, "operation", has a short-a.

The verb, "explain", has a long-a;
however, its noun equivalent, "explanation", has a short-a.

The verb, "exclaim", has a long-a;
however, its noun equivalent, "exclamation", has a short-a.

The verb, "emphasize", has a long-i
however, its noun equivalent, "emphasis", has a short-i.

The verb, "proclaim", has a long-o;
however, its noun equivalent, "proclamation", has a short-a.
The verb, "transform", has a long-o;
however, its noun equivalent, "transformation", has a short-e.

The verb, "demonstrate", has a long-a;
however, its noun equivalent, "demonstration", has a short-a.

The verb, "absorb", has a long-a;
however, its noun equivalent, "absorption", has a short-a.
Note: the "o" in both
Note: is a long-o. (U-
Note: sually, an "o"
Note: before an "r"
Note: is short.)
The verb, "observe", has a long-a;
however, its noun equivalent, "observation",  has a short-a.

The verb, "reserve", has a long-e;
however, its noun equivalent, "reservation",  both "e"s are "short-e"s


Extra-long Long VOWELS

These seem to be UNIQUE to English.

For example, "bet" has a short-i; by way of contrast, "bike"
has a longer-i.

However, "bicycle" has an extra-long-i

For example, "bat" has a short-a; "bake" has a short-a; but,
"bake" has a long-a.

HOWEVER, "bacon" is an extra-long-a: the "velar (back of
the throat) k (c)," contributes to stretching the vowel as it
takes some time to get around to pronouncing the "k" re-
sulting in a "longer" sound.

For example, "seen" has an extra-long, long-e.

For example, "body" end with an extra-long, long-e because
it's NOT curtailed by a consonant after it.

For example, though "soon" has a long-u, "spoon" has an
extra-long long-u because the aspirated-sp-consonantal-
combo prolongs the long-u.

For example, "loon" has an extra-long long-u because the
liquid-l elongates the long-u.
(The "l" + "r" are referred to as liquid (flexible) consonants
as they're emphasized more than the other more fixed,
static consonants that do NOT ROLL.)

Extra-long Short Vowels
For example, "her" has a long, short-e.

The aspirated-h helps to extend it.
In fact, all words with a schwa syllables are long ...
- sure
- blur
- deter
- incur
- refer
- inert.

For this sound to be "properly" pronounced, it "has to be"
stretched out.

Interestingly, the schwa, long short-e is THE MOST COM-
SOUND of the English language.

Take note. :D

Short-vowel Suffixes

Suffixes extend the length of the word.

Long words have short vowels.

An exception is the "ity" suffix when added to "severe"
creating the word, "severity".

A common suffix is "ous" pronounced "iss"
Note: there is ...
- no o-sound
- no u-sound
- no ou-combo sound either.

When added to "danger", it creates the word "danger-
ous": not one long vowel there.

ANOTHER common suffix is "ion" pronounced "shun"
with a short-u.
Note: there is ...
- no i-sound
- no o-sound
- no io-combo sound either.

When added to "attend", it creates the word "attention":
not one long vowel there.

ANOTHER common suffix is "tial" pronounced "shell"
with a short-e.
Note: there is ...
- no i-sound
- no a-sound
- no ia-combo sound either.
When added to "substance", it creates the word "sub-
stantial": not one long vowel there.

Yet, ANOTHER common suffix is "bility".

When added to "capable", it creates the word "capability":
not one long vowel there.

The INVISIBLE French Long-short-"ais"-vowel
To understand this it is important to note that the French, the
winners of the Battle of Hastings, took control of England +
imposed French on the English for some 500 years. (Some
will say it was NOT more than 350 years.)

This INVISIBLE French long-short-"ais"-vowel is drawn out.

Here are some words containing this French sound:
- yes
- yeah
- ready
- heavy
- bread
- dread
- breath
- health

Note" it's the British pronunciation that reflects this French
sound minus the y-glide sound.

A diphtong is a "blend" of 2 vowels creating one "long"

English has 2 diphtongs:
1. "ou" in "loud"
2. "oy" in "toy"; "oi" in "coin"

As expected, diphtongs are "long" + "strong".

Consequently, they phonetically stand out.
English Vowel Length Summation
make the following generalization: LONG VOWELS will be
found in short words like "wild", but NOT in long words
NOR in the suffixes of words.

ALSO, some long vowels are longer than others + the same
can be said for short schwa syllables.

The French "ais" sound that is NOT recognized by the
English language thought it's there.

Diphtongs are "naturally" long sounds that STAND OUT.

Having to know all this,
how can non-native speakers
possibly pronounce most English words?

How can they?

Here's undeniable proof that English is
THE MOST DIFFICULT language in the world

Looking at the written English
and trying to pronouce it correctly is

Steno-K+ Notation
is based on the sounds
of the English language.